Oh today is the last date of October! after the weekend is the day! 3rd November 2014 there will be new addition! so why not my friends do not get a glimpse of the same! I am happy to put forward the HIGHLIGHTS!
Here is the briefing before you go for it!
POWER PLANT INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL HANDBOOK
PUBLISHER : ELSEVIER (www.store.elsevier.com/9780128009406)
GLOBAL PUBLICATION DATE 3rd NOVEMEBER 2014
Chapter I INTRODUCTION
Keywords : Power Plant Hand Book, Heat & Work, Laws of Thermodynamics, Rankin cycle, Enthalpy, Entropy, Steam & Gas Turbine
ABSTRACT: Authors are associated with the Instrumentation System of Power Plants for over decades and are still in touch with modern technology. This book is the outcome of their experiences to benefit practicing engineers and students associated with power plants. Power Plant concepts are based on Laws of Thermodynamics depicting the relations among Heat, Work, property of system, Specific Weight / Volume, Path, Process, etc. Definitions of different types of Energy, Work, Boyle’s Law & Charles Law with general and combined equations, Avogadro’s Law / Hypothesis, Universal Gas Constant, Enthalpy, Entropy, Rankin and other cycles are touched upon in this Chapter along with Pressure – Volume and Temperature-Entropy Diagram for steam, different types of Boilers, Turbines, Condensers and Regenerative cycles. These recapitulations have been done at the beginning to enable reader to refresh basic knowledge on power plants.
Chapter II MAIN EQUIPMENT
Keywords : Power Plant Hand Book, Heat & Work, Laws of Thermodynamics, Rankin cycle, Enthalpy, Entropy, Steam & Gas Turbine
ABSTRACT: Power Plant is conceived as a ‘Basic Heat Engine’ comprising Boiler, Turbine, Condenser, Boiler Feed Pump, Generator, Heaters, Water Treatment, Coal / Ash /Oil Handling Plant, Condensate Polishing Unit, CW & ACW System, Cooling Towers, etc. Boiler incorporates subsystems like fuel, air / draft /feed water with auxiliaries such as Pulverizes (solid fuels), Fuel oil ,FD/ PA / ID Fans,BFPs, etc Turbine drives the generator with subsystems like Turbine Oil, Turning Gear, HP /LP Bypass, Gland Sealing Systems, Governor and Isolation Valves, Condenser, Ejectors, Electro-Hydraulic Governing Control, Protection &Testing, Supervisory Instrumentation, Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU), CEPs, Generator is based on two major parts; the Rotor working as a D.C magnetic field rotating inside hollow Stator. Generators are cooled with almost pure hydrogen gas with a sealing system by oil. Hollow stator conductors are cooled with ultra pure water.
Chapter III PLANT P&ID DISCUSSIONS
Keywords: Instrument Symbols: Process Parameters: Pipe representation: Safety Valve: Bypass: Hot & Cold PA: Black Start: Fire resistant fluid: Atomization:
ABSTRACT: Entire system process is brought before the engineer with symbols, Process & piping details. All major equipment their relative disposition in the process with important parameter monitoring & control with required redundancies based on criticality. Main Steam system from boiler to turbine including HP Bypass has been covered. In HRH & CRH system LP bypass system has been covered. Regenerative heaters with extraction steam heating, condensate and feed water flow paths with options for BFP and its drive have been covered. In heater vents & drain normal and emergency heater level controls have been included. Pulverizer instrumentation, boiler firing, Air and flue gas path in boiler has also been discussed at length. Discussions on GT and combined cycle P&ID plants have also been included. Also discussions, on boiler and turbo generator auxiliaries have been covered.
Chapter IV GENERAL INSTRUMENTS
Keywords: Type of Instruments, Process Parameter, Instrument Range, Pressure transmitter, Temperature transmitter, Flow transmitter, Level transmitter, Ultrasonic Level & Flow Transmitter, Mass Flowmeter
ABSTRACT: There are various types of measurements and controls accomplished through sensors and transmitters. Pressure, Temperature, Flow and Level type general measurements are included in this chapter. Different types of pressure and temperature elements are deployed for respective measurements. Flow elements are often used as differential producers for flow measurements. Level Measurements are often based on pressure and differential pressure measurements. Other type of flow and level measurements are also described. Working principle, specification/ data sheets, typical list of measurements are presented.
Chapter V SPECIAL INSTRUMENT
Keywords: Vibration: Turbovisory: Seismic : Hall Probe: Chemiluminescence: AVT: OT: Corrosion : SWAS: Hydrogen Embrittlement: Colorimetric: Amperometric :
ABSTRACT: Power plants with a number of rotating equipment, condition monitoring and vibration analysis is important. For turbines other Turbovisory instruments are also important. Gas analyzers are important for pollution control and combustion optimization. Both boiler and turbine performance depends on Feed water and steam quality especially for super critical plants. Water quality maintained by monitoring the same and by various treatments and blow down. SWAS has been discussed at length covering various sampling methods. Under special instruments all these condition monitoring instruments, gas and liquid analytical instruments working principles, standard data sheets have been covered. For special instruments, accessories play important role so same has also been covered. This also includes selection procedure, application & installation notes for various special instruments.
Chapter VI FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT
Keywords: Final Control Element: Cavitations: Choked flow: Noise: Trim: Blade Pitch: VFD: IGBT: Smart Actuator: Scoop Tube
ABSTRACT: ISA guide lines followed for FCE sizing and noise calculations, discussions on special phenomena flashing fluid, cavitations, critical velocity etc. Materials of construction & dimensional details for FCE have been discussed. Types of control valves with applications in plant have been covered with special reference to Drag, Variable Resistance Trim type valves. In power plant various other methods are also deployed to regulate flow through pumps & fans, so various damper blade pitch control, speed control by hydraulic coupling scoop tube, VFDs with special reference to IGBT have been covered. For actuators, special discussions on for their selection, application note have been covered for both diaphragm as well as piston actuators. Also conventional and intelligent electrical actuators have been discussed. Detailed discussions on all accessories both conventional as well as smart types have been discussed. In all cases data sheets have also been included.
Chapter VII INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEM
Keywords: Network Integration: Protocol: Fieldbus: HART: Token pass: OPC: Network Security : Adaptive: Touch Screen: Optimization: DCS :
ABSTRACT: Signal conditioning, standard ISO model for standardized protocol, networking and integrations with various links, gateway, OPC Server, standard field bus, smart protocol and communication methods used have been discussed for intelligent and integrated power plant control system. Various PLC types and their applications in systems like BMS. ATRS Electrical system SCADA, Offsite plants have also been discussed. Various possible configurations, communication especially meant for power plant DCS has been included. Discussions on Software include security, integrity and diagnostics of the system. Discussions have been included on displays & logs in power plant application. MIS including performance calculations as per international standards, accounting etc. are important factors. A composite network including corporate integration methods have been discussed also.
Chapter VIII BOILER CONTROL SYSTEM
Keywords: Boiler Controls, Mill Controls, Main Steam Pressure Control, Fuel Flow Control, Air Flow Control, Furnace Draft Control, Drum Level Control, SH/RH Temperature Control, HPBP System, SADC/FSSS/BMS
ABSTRACT: Basic control requirements such as philosophy, redundancy, etc. applicable to all control loops and the legends used for typical control strategies adopted in a power plant are presented. These type of illustrations with write up and all possible alternatives (such as tilting type or wall mounted burners) are depicted which are not normally available in other text or reference books. This chapter mainly covers control of boiler part for example master steam pressure, air and fuel flow, mill air/temperature, furnace draft, drum level, SH and RH temperature, HPBP pressure, SADC, SB pressure, etc. Mutual signal exchanges amongst different control systems are shown with special notes. Covered also are open loop controls e.g. FSSS/BMS, interlock & protection scheme, etc. Various types of mills and their controls with alternatives have been depicted.
Chapter IX TURBOGENERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM
Keywords: Turbine EHG Control, Automatic Turbine Run-up, Automatic Turbine Testing, Thermal Stress Evaluator, LPBP System, Gland Sealing, AVR, Generator Excitation, H2 & Seal Oil Pressure Control
ABSTRACT: In the initial stage, turbine was mainly controlled by hydraulic system. As advancement came in natural way, measurement systems are now fully accomplished by electronic instruments and control by a mixture of electronic and hydraulic system in addition to a separate hydraulic controls which is kept as a back up. Typical control philosophy of all CLCS, OLCS and automatic testing procedures for turbine sides are included in this chapter. Turbine EHC (speed/load), Automatic Run Up / Testing / Protection system, Thermal Stress Evaluator, LPBP, Gland sealing, Condenser / Deaerator level controls are discussed. Generator side controls such as Generator terminal voltage control, different type of excitation system, H2 and Seal oil system and controls, Seal oil and H2temperature controls, Stator cooling water system, etc. are well taken care off.
Chapter X COORDINATED CONTROL SYSTEM
Keywords: Coordinated Control System, Boiler Follow Mode, Turbine Follow Modes, Run Back Action, LDC, AGC, Generator Load Control
ABSTRACT: In thermal power plant the fundamental objective is to supply thermal energy by the boiler as required by the turbine to convert the same to mechanical energy to match the electrical power delivered by the generator coupled with the turbine. There must be a balance amongst all these form of power so as to ensure continuous supply of electricity with a well coordinated control system having control strategy ensuring largely fluctuating power demand with an optimum rate of load change resulting minimum possible thermal stresses. This chapter depicts control philosophies regarding coordinated control of Boiler and Turbine according to load requirement either by local/station load demand or central load dispatch centre. Other possibilities like boiler follow mode or turbine follow modes, their initiations, implications and relations with the coordinated control system are taken care of with run back action followed by loss of any equipment.
Chapter XI BALANCE OF PLANT CONTROL SYSTEM
Keywords: Recirculation: Pegging Pressure: Water Induction: Tube rupture: Cascade Drain: Steam ejector : Recirculation Control Valve
ABSTRACT: BOP controls are mainly regenerative heater controls and recirculation controls BFP and CEP. Recirculation controls are simple but quite critical for equipment protection. For large size plants and super critical plants BFP recirculation control has special significance. Control valve selection for BFP recirculation is also critical. In CEP recirculation there are variations in control philosophy which have been discussed with examples. Heater drains and vents control during normal operation as well as during emergency situation like heater tube rupture. For boiler operation, Deaerator heating is extremely important especially for large size units, so detailed discussion have presented on deaerator pressure control with several variations to take care of changeover of steam sources to deaerator. Ejectors are used for maintenance of condenser vacuum so discussions have been included for the same along with turbine auxiliary steam (TAS) system.
Chapter XII INSTALLATION PRACTICES
Keywords: Impulse line: Transmitter enclosure: Dummy line : Remote Seal: Temperature Equalizing Column: Root valve : Grounding: LAN Cable: Extension wire: Compensating Cable
ABSTRACT: Instruments or control systems will not function well with improper installation. All mechanical erection hardware including accessories with their size, pressure temperature ratings, materials of constructions for different applications have been covered. Relative location of source point, connection size and type details and conformance to standard installation practices are important so that there is no problem in flow ability, accessibility. As in power plants many instruments are grouped and put in enclosures which have been included in the discussion. For electrical installation selection of proper cable, tray, spacing of cables in tray as well as gap between various trays are extremely important especially for instrumentation cables as they carry very low signal. Importance of grounding especially for intelligent system based on low level signal cannot be overestimated so detailed discussion on the same has been included with their variations in practice.
Appendix I PROCESS AND MECHANICAL STANDARD TABLES
Keywords: Standard Tables, Conversion Tables. Standard Prefix, Standard Units, Flange Dimensions, Dynamic Viscocity
ABSTRACT: Various types of Standard Tables, Conversion Tables. Standard Prefix, Standard Units related to pressure, temperature, level, flow, mass, distance, area, etc. are included in this annexure. Flange dimensions and tolerances as per ASME/ANSI B16.5 standard against each available pipe sizes are also included. Dynamic Viscosity of water, other different liquids, air, etc. included.
Appendix II ELECTRICAL DATA AND TABLES
Keywords: Multi core Copper Conductors, Conductor Current Rating, Electrical resistance , Collective Screened Pair Cables ,RTD Table
ABSTRACT: Various types of instrument and control cables with size, weight, diameter, electrical resistance, etc. are included. Temperature versus resistance table for RTD (platinum resistance type ) is also included.
Appendix III ISA STANDARDS, MATERIALS, HUMAN ENGINEERING AND CONTROL ROOM
Keywords: ISA Standard : Carbon & ceramic: Plastic & Rubber : Metals & alloys: Ergonomics: Control room: Light &Sound: Temperature control: Human Engineering
ABSTRACT: The information appended here consists of various ISA standards mainly used for power plant applications. Brief presentation on various materials normally finds their applications in instrumentation have been discussed with temperature range. Ergonomics is very important for Control room, Control Panel design. A brief discussion on the same including temperature regulation, Light and sound effect for control room has been discussed. For control panel layout and vis a vis lighting design, human engineering play a great role so, short discussion on the same has also been included.
Appendix IV NETWORK CONTROL AND COMMUNICATION
Keywords: Fiber optic Network: Electromagnetic Spectrum: Firewall: fault Tolerant Ethernet: Semiconductor LASER: Demilitaized Zone(DMZ): FTE Topology
ABSTRACT: Some additional discussions have been presented on network control and communication. The discussions start with Fiber optic communication methodology, Spectrum for long distance communication. With more and more system integration and internet the networks become vulnerable. So from security point of view suitable firewall needs to be developed for protection of the network of interest. A brief discussion on Firewall and security aspect has been covered. System availability is extremely important foe real time networks, therefore fault tolerant Ethernet enjoys some especial position. A short discussion on Fault tolerant Ethernet has been included.
Appendix V POWER PLANTS WITH SUPER AND ULTRA SUPER CRITICAL STEAM GENERATORS
Keywords: Subcritical Plant, Super Critical(SC) Plant, Ultra Super Critical (USC) Plant, Once Through (OT) Boiler, Benson Point, Benson Boiler, Wet Mode Operation, Dry Mode Operation. Fuel / Air ratio.
ABSTRACT: Thermal power plants can be divided into Subcritical, Super critical and Ultra supercritical category. Power plants operating at steam conditions more than that of critical point i.e. 221MPa & temperature 374˚C are supercritical power plant. In Supercritical stage there is no DISTINCTION between liquid (water and Gaseous (steam) phase and latent heat is not necessary unlike subcritical boiler to convert water to steam. In Ultra super critical plants steam is operated at higher pressure and Temperature (around 300bar and 630˚C). Efficiency and pollutant emission are much improved and can be seen from the table AP5/1 “Comparison amongst Typical subcritical /super critical & Ultra super critical plants”. Fire input /Feed water ratio is very important as these are necessarily once through boilers where100% Condensate polishing unit is a natural choice. Separator units, storage vessels and recirculation pump are required for start-up / wet mode of operation.
Appendix VI INTEGRATED GASSIFIER AND COMBINED –CYCLE PLANT (POLLUTION CONTROL)
Keywords: Gasification : Pollutants: Air Separation Unit: Syn. Gas: Scrubber: AGR: CFBC
ABSTRACT: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology is the future promise to meet high energy demand with lesser pollution. A brief discussions on the same has been appended. The basic process for the same, and how synthesized gas is produced has been discussed. Various methods for gas cleaning and other process details have been covered in this discussions. A brief discussions on the power block from this system has also been included to complete the discussions. Also a brief details about Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion method has been included as a short note for readers benefit.
Appendix VII A FEW OPERATIONAL FEATURES OF UNIT
Keywords: Unit Protection: Trip Classes: MFT: Lock out relay: Trimming Device: House load: Automatic Bus transfer: Fast Transfer: In Phase: Residual voltage
ABSTRACT: Unit Protection with various classes of trips under various conditions have been discussed with special reference to practical implementations have been discussed. House load operation is a specialized operation so its requirements have been covered. For thermal power plant operation under various electrical fault conditions require smooth bus transfer. Various methods of such transfer with pros and cons of each system have been covered with special reference to modern practices.